Indirect Speech (Dolaylı Anlatım)
Dolaylı anlatım iki kişi arasındaki konuşmanın üçüncü kişi ya da kişilere aktarılmasıdır. 1) Düz tümceler
a) Giriş tümcesi the simple present, the present perfect ve the future tense ise zamanlarda bir değişiklik yapılmaz:
"They are coming", He says they are coming.
"Your friend is ill." She will tell you that your friend is ill.
b) Giriş tümcesi geçmiş zaman ise aşağıdaki zaman değişiklikleri yapılır: "They work", (s. present) He said they worked (s. past).
"They are working", (present continuous) He said that they were working. (past continuous). "They have worked", (present perfect) He said they had worked, (past perfect)
"They worked", (simple past) He said that they had worked, (past perfect).
"They were working", (past continuous) He said that they had been working, (past perfect continuous).
c) Adıllar da konuşmanın konumuna göre değiştirilir:
He said : "I am doing my homework.
He said that he was doing his homework. She said she was doing her homework.
She said: "I saw the boy."
She said (that) she had seen the boy. He said: "My car is new"
He said his car was new.
He said: "They helped us."
He said that they had helped them.
d) Yukarıda sözü edilen (a) seçeneği dışında kipliklerin ikinci (past) biçimi kullanılır:
'I can swim. She said she could swim.
He said he could swim.
'You may go The teacher said we might go.
Not: would, might, should, had better, must genel olarak değişikliğe uğramaz. c) Zaman zarfları da değişir:
dolaysız (direct) dolaylı (indirect)
now then today that day
yesterday the day before (the previous day)
tomorrow the next day
next week the following week this that
Soru tümcelerinin dolaylı anlatımı:
a) Yardımcı eylem ve kipliklerle başlayanlar:
Yukarıdaki değişmeler burada da geçerlidir. En önemli nokta He asked if/ he wanted to know if /
whether gibi bir giriş tümcesiyle başlayıp kipliği düz tümcedeki yerine taşımaktır.
'Can you swim?' He asked if I could swim.
'Will she come?" He asked if she would come.
May I open the door? She asked if she might open the door.
Do, does, did ile başlayan sorularda durum değişiktir.
'Do you speak English?' He asked if I spoke English.
'Does he speak English?' He asked if the spoke English.
'Did he speak English?' He asked if he had spoken English.
Burada do ortadan kalkar, ya da eylemle uygun zamana dönüşür.
b) Where, when, why, what, who, vb. soru sözcüğü ile başlayan sorular için de yukardaki kuralların tümü geçerlidir, yalnızca if yerine soru sözcüğünün kendisi konulur:
'Where do you live?' He asked where I lived.
'Why isn't she coming?' He asked why she wasn't coming. ' When will she come?' They asked when she would come.
'What are they doing? I asked what they were doing.
Dolaylı anlatımdaki tümcelerde soru tümcelerinin düzgün tümce biçimine dönüştüğüne, soru biçiminin ortadan kalktığına, soru sözcüklerinin bağlaç görevinde olduklarına özellikle dikkat edilmelidir.
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